Peas is a winter season crop in Pakistan. There are different vegetable categories through which we can understand the different types. There are some vegetables included in the leafy group, some are root vegetables like carrot, turnip; some are bulbous and tuber crops. Pea is a vegetable included in those vegetables in which seed is used for cooking purposes. Its medicinal importance is higher enough that it contains a higher value of proteins among the different vegetables. In Pakistan, it is grown mostly in Northern Punjab in Sahiwal, Sargodha, Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh. In this article, I will discuss each aspect of peas farming. There are the following outlines under which the whole article will be discussed.
- Land preparation
- Fertilizer and irrigation
- Plant protection
Peas varieties in Pakistan
Peas farming is very common in southern Punjab where different varieties are enough compatible with climate and seasons. Peas require certain conditions for the germination of their seeds. The most important factor is temperature ranging from 20-250C. There are a lot of varieties used by different growers. Variety impact much more for average yield, there are many local varieties are being used by farmer like “Matture, Helena”. This decision should be taken wisely by exploring the market and by a conversation with agriculture experts. The seed rate requires for an acre is 50 kg.
There are a lot of farmers who are growing seeds for business, so it is easier to get the seed requirement. It is also suggested that seeds should be pre-soaked in water for getting higher results of germination.
Note: There are two kinds of sowing season that are pronounced among the farmers one is called “Agaiti” the earlier time period which starts from September to 15 October. Another time is known as “Pachaiti” which starts from October to the 15 November. There are different kinds of varieties that are sown like for the “Agaiti” time period “Matture and Samreen Zard” are more suitable while for “Pachaiti” the late time period “Kalvex or Climax and Elena or Helena ” are more suitable.
Peas sowing time in Pakistan
Peas are grown differently from other kinds of vegetables. Some farmers used to grow the seeds by making the beds some are doing on ridges. Land should be good with better drainage capacity and sandy loam soil is most suitable for peas. Land should be filled with well-rotted farmyard manure and it should be done one month earlier before the plantation. Before sowing land should be plowed well and then seed broadcasting is done and made the ridges with ridger and irrigate the field.
In the other method, beds are prepared with 1.5 ft to 2.5 ft size which is in which plant to plant distance is kept not so closed that later when the plant will grow then its dense foliage seems so profusely then branches may rush into each other. It is suggested that if the bed size is kept at 1.5 ft then the plant should not be on both sides of edges but if the bed’s size is wider up to 2.5 ft then it will be suitable for planting seeds on both sides of the bed.
Fertilizer and irrigation
It is suggested that applied the organic matter in the farmyard manure when land is prepared with DAP which is recommended. In the early days before flowering appears crop needs plenty amount of nitrogen for its vegetative growth which can be fulfilled with urea with each irrigation. When flowering starts then lowers down the nitrogenous fertilizer and increases the quantity of potash so that fruiting could be better. It is suggested that at the time of flowering crop needs more potash so it should be applied with spray formulation because it is available in powders formation. Irrigation requirement depends upon the condition, in plain areas where the growing time starts from October to December, its interval for irrigation is 6-7 days in earlier days but when the temperature gets down its interval will shift for 12-15 days.
The preliminary issue that appears is weed so it is important to spray earlier so that it could be easier to control weeds later. In the market different pre-emergence herbicides, formulations are available. So, it is suggested that apply the spray of pentamethylene after sowing when the field gets semi-wet condition or water condition. Root rot and powdery mildew are two common fungal diseases that appeared and it is suggested that the application of Topsin-M should be applied to control the fungal diseases. In insects and pests, cotton jassid, aphid, American bollworm are very common in the peas crops. So, it is necessary that the application of insecticides should be applied.
Harvesting is done after almost 21 days of flowering and mainly 2-3 picking done. In early variety have a threshold of about two pickings while the late variety has a threshold of 3 pickings. It is suggested that visit the field when pods envelop filled with peas pieces then it’s time for your harvesting. A crop takes three months for picking and survives for one more next month for another picking said to experts.
Yield and profit
It is roughly claimed and estimated by the farmers and experienced growers that early varieties yield up to 1500-2000 kg while late variety’s yield doubled than earlier varieties. There are almost 25-30 thousand rupees of total expenditure for peas farming and profit margin can be generated 50-60 thousand approximately after subtracting the expenditures and market price also influence the profit.
- Peas are a cool-season crop.
- Farmers not also growing for selling green pods as well as growing as a seed business.
- There are some early varieties, time starts from September to October whereas late varieties have time period starts from 15 October to November.
- It is suggested that seeds should be presoaked in water for a higher germination percentage.
- Peas have a vine like structure so that it is necessary to trail the succulent branches for getting a higher number of yields.
- There are two types of sowing methods, first is by seed broadcasting and the making of ridges which is the traditional way and the second is sowing on wider bed size.
- There are few things that could be under consideration regarding plant protection like weeds control, attacks of fungal diseases, attack of aphids, American bollworm, jassid.
- It is suggested that set the preliminary measures for controlling weeds, fungal diseases and insect attacks.
I hope this article helps you a lot keep commenting and stay tuned!