The transition of guava farming from traditional to modern strategies is high-density plantation (HDP) where a farmer can grow the greater numbers of plants and fruit production. The high-density plantation is a better technique to get the fruit faster than the traditional way of cultivation. One of the best benefits of applying HDP is that equal-sized fruit can be obtained. In this article, I will cover each point, which is very important for a commercial point of view for the farmers. The whole article will be discussed in following outlines,
- Plant selection
- Land preparation and planting
- Planting time
- Care of plant
- Fertilizer and irrigation
- Feasibility report
- Yield and profit
The plant should be selected from the well-reputed nursery. Select the plant of 2 ft height do not select the taller plant. Most of the time farmers select the cheaper plant which is taller (actually, the taller plant is more than average life in nursery, and it will not survive when it will be planted) also choose the right variety. There are different varieties in Pakistan like “Sadabahar”, “China gola”, “Surahi” etc. In Pakistan, China gola is commonly grown due to its production is for the whole year.
Land preparation and planting
Initially, the soil should be level with laser leveling technique and well pulverize the soil by plowing 3-4 times and rotavator. Dig a hole in with plant to plant with 4 ft of distance with the square system. A hole should be 3 ft deeper where it can expose the direct sunlight for 2 weeks before plantation so that its soil-borne pathogens and diseases should be killed by the sunlight. After that 2-week duration, the hole should be filled with sand, silt, and rotten farmyard or cow dung with equal proportion 1:1:1 with the plant. By keeping the distance 4ft plant to plant, you can grow the 2000 plants per acre.
It can be planted around a whole year, but the best time to plant the guava for orchard establishment is within February to March or monsoon season August to September.
Care of plant
In the HDP technique, plant to plant distance is closed, guava is a shrubby tree to maintain the distance pruning is mandatory. In HDP, plant height is also maintained up to 5-6 ft. Another important care is about weeds, at initial stages weeds can compete with plants for the soil resources, to prevent this competition is done by manual eradication of weeds and can be controlled chemically. Later, when a plant gets height its competition is very lower with weeds.
In guava orchard, the fruit fly is very common, it survives more during the hot temperature in summer while it is controlled in winter due to lower temperatures. Guava gives the fruit twice in a year, but in summer fruit is wasted off due to less demand in the market and more fruit fly attack.
Fertilizer and irrigation
Drip irrigation is recommended for HDP of guava because by this technique plants can be feed with the optimum amount of fertilizer with optimum water frequency to each plant. By drip irrigation, each plant gets an equal amount of water and fertilizer. Once the complete drip irrigation system is established then it is easier for the farmer to judge the daily based dose of fertilizer and water. Irrigation is done on the base of weather, where summer irrigation is applied daily bases. Fertilizer is applied with water and this technique is known as fertigation. A smaller quantity of fertilizer is applied which is approximately 15 to 20 bags of fertilizer for a year in comparison with flood irrigation. Guava plant gets the food from roots when it is in semi-wet or “Watter” condition, so with the help of a drip irrigation system each plant remains wet for a whole day so it gets the maximum amount of fertilizer feed with water. Initially, during the vegetative growth more phosphorus is recommended but later during the fruiting potash fertilizer is important.
For drip irrigation, it is enough costly without government subsidy but with government subsidy programs according to the % share in drip irrigation whole panel and plastic pipes will decide that how much you must pay. Originally, its cost is up to 20 lakhs but with a government subsidy plan. The latest subsidy plan of government of Pakistan is 40 % will be paid by the farmer and remaining will be the government responsibility and its capacity is up to 15 acres.
Expenditure of plants and labors
Approximately, from the nursery smaller plant with maximum roots and vigorous plant cost is 34-35 per plant and its total cost for plant is about 70,000 rupees while the other expenditure can be expected so we can estimate a 1 lakh of expenditure per acre.
Yield and profit
Guava farming in Punjab, Pakistan its production per plant is 8-10 kg, so we can estimate from 2000 plants up to 20000 kg production per acre and its price in the market is based on per 40 kg (up to1600 rupees for companies contracts like nestle and other juice-making companies) while for a market its price fluctuates per ton.
Yield per plant = 10 kg
Yield of 2000 plants = 10 × 2000 = 20000 kg
Price per Mond (40 kg) = 1600 rupees
No. of Mond in 2000 kg = 2000/40 = 500 Mond
Price of 500 Mond = 1600×500 = 800,000 rupees
It is an estimated profit per acre but not we can say that the exact figure, but by HDP technique farmer can generate the higher outcome of production which will be further according to the market will decide that how much profit is estimated.
- Plant selection is important, select the healthy plants up to 2 ft in height. For an acre, in the HDP technique 2000 plants can be planted by keeping the 4 ft plant to plant distance.
- China gola is a famous guava variety that is common in Pakistan.
- Prepare the land by leveling initially with laser level technique, then dig the hole by 4 ft distance and 3 ft deeper. Fill these holes with a mixed soil mixture of sand, silt, and FYM.
- Plant care and protection are done by weeding, pruning of plant and fruit fly.
- 1 lakh of expenditure is estimated except the drip irrigation system, while a 60% subsidy is available by the government for the drip system establishment.
- There are 7-8 lakhs estimated guava farming profit per acre.
- HDP technique is enough for earning profit from guava.
I hope this article, helps you to see the advancement in commercial guava farming with HDP of guava.